By Stephen Young
By Stephen Young
By Stephen Young
By Jim Schutze
By Rachel Watts
By Lauren Drewes Daniels
"They had been trying to keep me from wearing black since the eighth grade," says Lannoye, pausing between words, his soft voice hesitant. "But this year Mr. [Charles] Nicks, the school principal, called me into his office and told me that the school was going to stick to its policy [of not letting me wear black], and that I was not going to be able to wear my pentacle."
Alleging that Mark's clothing and medal could be considered gang paraphernalia, school administrators demanded that he stop wearing them, according to Mark and his father, Rick Lannoye. Mark's father also claims that his son missed 23 class periods this school year--all spent in the principal's office--because of the administrator's insistence that he change or remove the articles in question.
None of the principals at Mesquite High School returned phone calls from the Dallas Observer requesting comment. Catherine Cernosek, a school spokeswoman, did respond, however, saying, "Our information is not the same as Mr. Lannoye's. I am not sure what the problem is. His son may wear a pentacle if he wants to."
She offered no explanation for the missed classes or any actions the school may have taken in the past concerning Mark Lannoye's clothing and jewelry.
Though school officials are keeping quiet these days, their alleged disciplinary action against a non-conforming student has attracted the interest of the American Civil Liberties Union, and the Lannoyes are threatening to fight in court for their constitutional right to express their religious beliefs.
The pentacle, essentially a pentagram--a five-pointed star enclosed within a circle--happens to be the best-known symbol of the nature-based Wiccan religion. To Wiccans such as Mark and his father, the star's four lower points represent the forces of nature: earth, fire, air, and water. The fifth and highest point stands for the spirit, and the circle around it symbolizes Mother Earth.
The color black also has significance for the Lannoyes, especially during autumn. "It is related to the darkening of the seasons, and it is our way of expressing our connection to nature," Rick Lannoye says. It is also the Wiccan way of sympathizing with non-Christians who were persecuted for their beliefs during what Wiccans call "the burning times"--the 16th and 17th centuries that in Europe were marked by the Inquisition.
While the pentacle is commonly acknowledged by Wiccans as having religious meaning, not all adherents recognize the significance of the color black. But Wiccans do stress that one of the tenets of their religion is a strong individualism, emphasizing each person's interpretation and expression of his faith.
"To me, black has no special significance, but you have to remember that there is no one rule or liturgy for Wicca; every person will do it a little differently," says Larry Koentop, owner of Flight of the Phoenix, a Wiccan general store in Grand Prairie. "To the Lannoyes, black is a significant color."
Steve, a Wiccan from Arlington who chose not to give his full name, agrees with Koentop. He says that the color black has no specific religious meaning, but that "most Wiccans are solitary, and there is no book anywhere that states what this religion follows." He then goes on to ask, if Muslims and Hindus can wear distinctive clothing, and Jews can wear yarmulkes, "why can't the Lannoyes wear what they consider to be clothing of religious importance?"
The answer to that question apparently rests in a flier given to Mesquite High School administrators by Don Williams, a police officer who serves as a link between the school and the Mesquite Police Department. Williams wrote and distributed a one-page paper, which is titled "Youth Gone Wild" and "Outcast." It is not on official Mesquite police letterhead, but it states, among other things, that the Mesquite police have identified a new gang, and that Williams believes "Mesquite High School is seeing a large number of these individuals within the student body."
The flier lists as gang identifiers black or dark clothing and a symbol similar to the pentacle Lannoye wears. Other items or characteristics described as potentially gang-related are black nail polish, lipstick, or dyed black hair; Marilyn Manson T-shirts; chains and locks; and homosexuality.
Under the Texas penal code, the definition of a criminal street gang is "Three or more persons having a common identifying sign or symbol or an identifiable leadership who continuously or regularly associate in the commission of criminal activities."
When asked if the kids who prompted Williams to produce the flier had been convicted of any criminal offenses, Sgt. Joel Martin, Williams' supervisor, said, "Our officer at Mesquite High had some general information that he had received from our youth action officers...saying that in a general sense, there were some kids that were dressing and acting and behaving in a certain manner."