By Elaine Liner
By Jim Schutze
By Rachel Watts
By Lauren Drewes Daniels
By Anna Merlan
By Lee Escobedo
We owe this comforting revelation to carbon, the crystalline substance that is No. 6 on the periodic table. The fount of life as we know it, carbon is an element so elegant and full of possibility. Couple one atom of carbon with two of oxygen and you get the exhaust from human respiration that is necessary to plant life, carbon dioxide. Put that same atom with only one atom of oxygen and you get the deadly gas carbon monoxide that in 1997 put the Nike-wearing Heaven's Gaters on the road to what they thought would be an extraterrestrial hereafter. Sometimes lethal but always necessary, carbon gives us so much--both life and death, diamonds as well as immediate duplication by way of the carbon copy.
The German-born artist Lothar Baumgarten understands well the potency of carbon. In Lothar Baumgarten: Carbon, (Dallas), now at the Dallas Museum of Art, Baumgarten focuses on the life-giving yet lethal duality of carbon, as it has borne a double-edged sword of creative destruction upon the American landscape. His take on the element is more material than atomic, as he looks to it as the basis of large-scale modernization in the United States. Baumgarten's interests lie in the greater molecular buildup of carbon, as it became the necessary stuff of steel and railway development, fuel and speedy locomotive movement. The show is the result of Baumgarten's four-month-long peregrination back in 1989, when he set out with a recorder, camera and journal to document the geography of the American railroad. The result is the multimedia installation "Carbon" that incorporates wall-sized vinyl drawings in black and red, more than 100 black-and-white photographs and a book of the same title.
"Carbon" is installed in the main barrel vault and adjacent quadrant galleries of the DMA. One enters the exhibition space to find three large wall drawings made up of red and black vinyl words stuck high on the walls. In form, the words mimic the abstract linear geometries of vertical and horizontal railroad crossings, both upright mechanical gates and the imbrication of tracks on the ground plane. Their layout also references the form of the steel truss that makes an iconic presence in the photographs lining the walls of the four galleries. Playing on the Westward-ho mentality of 19th-century frontier development, the two drawings on the walls next to the galleries are titled "Infinity (Dallas North)" and "Infinity (Dallas South)." Criss-crossing underneath the seam-like window under the vault is "Double Diamond (Dallas West)." The words constituting these forms are staccato and, in Baumgarten's words, "polyphonic." They are the names of various railroads (Buffalo Bayou, Brazos & California, Frisco, Santa Fe, Fort Worth & Denver City, Rock Island, etc.) that once operated or still operate in Texas and neighboring states. Occupying the open ground space below are several shallow vitrines set up on saw horses that display Baumgarten's book of the same title in various stages of graphic development.
Lining the walls of the four surrounding galleries are black-and-white photographs of the American railway landscape hung at eye level. With the exception of an occasional horse or a patch of cows dotting the landscapes, the images are largely lacking in animal life. Peopleless, they are shots of desolate industrial landscapes taken in states across the country, from Pennsylvania to Washington. The images capture the passage of industrial evolution in layered fashion, with highway overpasses shooting swiftly atop old railway tracks underneath. Steel and concrete inscribe lines both lithe and hulking, electricity and telephone communication as well as infrastructure past and present, such as tracks, railcars and highways. One finds towns old and new, those both left behind, such as Pittsburgh and Chicago, and newly anointed, such as Phoenix and Los Angeles.
Baumgarten has brought together a variety of media and influences in this piece designed specifically for the DMA. His wall drawings bring to mind the sardonic and critical-minded Conceptual practices of Lawrence Weiner and John Baldessari. The monochromatic photographs are reminiscent of the work of Walker Evans and other artists of the dust bowl-era Farm Security Administration. He pulls together these influences in order to forge a message of his own, one that is clear but slow in coming. Patience is a must in viewing this installation; it is a meditative piece on the ravaging yet often beautiful, radical and hubris-causing transformations brought on by the modern development of the open frontier in the form of the railroad.