Her artistic achievements, specifically her film versions of the gargantuan 1934 Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg (Triumph of the Will) and the 1936 Olympics in Berlin (1938's Olympia), have been debated to the point of exhaustion by film critics and historians. She has been the object of ecstatic praise and righteous scorn, the latter so dominant as to prevent her from working in the international feature-film industry for the past 45 years.
While pundits on both sides of the aisle have scored relevant points, the central question in this controversy has never been answered: was Riefenstahl--who never joined Hitler's National Socialist party--a Nazi sympathizer, or a nave egoist who seized an opportunity that would soon prove to be career suicide?
The rampant speculation about her politics hasn't continued because of a lack of access to the source herself. Riefenstahl, very much alive and preternaturally active at 93, published her memoirs in 1987 (the English translation appeared stateside in 1993), and stated unequivocally she was not a racist, not a Nazi, but a young artist swept along by a tide of desperate hopes, vanity, and the FYhrer's potent demagoguery. Some combination of all these caused a majority of the German electorate to name Adolf Hitler as chancellor in 1932.
Still, there has been widespread skepticism about the accuracy of her memories, and really, who can believe Riefenstahl has been totally honest? The autobiography offers a detailed account of her short-lived association with the FYhrer, but her recollections are bereft of personal motive.
Riefenstahl admits it was she who initiated the first meeting with Hitler. She sent him a letter requesting a conference after witnessing one of his frenzied pre-election speeches in a stadium, and recounts in (suspicious) detail two conversations they had about "the Jewish problem" (she claims she raised objections to his anti-Semitism, and he refused to discuss it with her), and her role in being the official filmmaker of the Third Reich (Riefenstahl swears her most adamant condition for working with the Nazis was they would have no say whatsoever in the content of her films).
She also paints herself as a good deal more wide-eyed and rosy-cheeked than her extraordinary accomplishments suggest. The most glaring omission here is the cunning ambition it must have taken for a woman of her era to be granted such incredible creative opportunities.
The book, in fact, feigns surprise at everything from her entrance into motion pictures (she literally talked her way into a starring role in filmmaker Arnold Fanck's [**not Franck?**]1926 The Holy Mountain), to her formative friendship with Joseph Von Sternberg that made a jealous rival of his protege Marlene Dietrich on the set of The Blue Angel, to the idea that Adolf Hitler would grant a request to meet one of the most beautiful actresses in German cinema. (Riefenstahl's debut as writer-director-star, 1932's The Blue Light, was said to be one of his all-time favorite films.)
But craven opportunism and genocidal complicity are two vastly different charges. Or are they? Here the moral dilemma of Riefenstahl's life blossoms into a conundrum that encompasses the role of everyone in society. Is the first responsibility of the artist to her own vision or to the service of humanity?
Writer-director Sam Muller's 1993 documentary The Wonderful Horrible Life of Leni Riefenstahl is not timid in its attempts to untangle the motives behind her career. He spent many months with Riefenstahl at home and traveled with her on location to the various sites where she shot her most famous movies.
The reflections he records, from her spurning of a horny Goebbels to her frank admiration of a doomed Hitler, are definitive. Yet she still refuses to do the one thing that might satisfy her detractors--apologize for her powerful image-making on behalf of the Nazis--because she feels she has been unfairly singled out for a shortsightedness suffered by many artists and citizens of her generation.
It's not hard to see why Riefenstahl has earned such enmity. She was about to turn 90 when Muller began his filming, yet she looked 20 years younger, and the superhuman resolve seen in her barefooted mountain-climbing stunts as a young actress resurfaced in her octogenarian pursuits as an underwater photographer--surely the oldest undersea adventurer on record anywhere.
She would seem to be the embodiment of the fascist ideal: mindlessly physical, ideally sculpted, inspired by some pagan notion of stamina. Yet her appreciation of athletic skill also lead her to spend eight months among the dark-skinned African Nuba tribes, a community known for its dancing and wrestling competitions.